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English nouns are often described as "countable" or "uncountable".

Countable Nouns

Countable nouns are easy to recognize. They are things that we can count. For example: "pen". We can count pens. We can have one, two, three or more pens. Here are some more countable nouns:

  • dog, cat, animal, man, person
  • bottle, box, litre
  • coin, note, dollar
  • cup, plate, fork
  • table, chair, suitcase, bag
Countable nouns can be singular or plural:
  • My dog is playing.
  • My dogs are hungry.
We can use the indefinite article a/an with countable nouns:
  • A dog is an animal.
When a countable noun is singular, we must use a word like a/the/my/this with it:
  • I want an orange. (not I want orange.)
  • Where is my bottle? (not Where is bottle?)
When a countable noun is plural, we can use it alone:
  • I like oranges.
  • Bottles can break.
We can use some and any with countable nouns:
  • I've got some dollars.
  • Have you got any pens?
We can use a few and many with countable nouns:
  • I've got a few dollars.
  • I haven't got many pens.
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"People" is countable. "People" is the plural of "person". We can count people:
  • There is one person here.
  • There are three people here.


Uncountable Nouns

Uncountable nouns are substances, concepts etc that we cannot divide into separate elements. We cannot "count" them. For example, we cannot count "milk". We can count "bottles of milk" or "litres of milk", but we cannot count "milk" itself. Here are some more uncountable nouns:
  • music, art, love, happiness
  • advice, information, news
  • furniture, luggage
  • rice, sugar, butter, water
  • electricity, gas, power
  • money, currency
We usually treat uncountable nouns as singular. We use a singular verb. For example:
  • This news is very important.
  • Your luggage looks heavy.
We do not usually use the indefinite article a/an with uncountable nouns. We cannot say "an information" or "a music". But we can say a something of:
  • a piece of news
  • a bottle of water
  • a grain of rice
We can use some and any with uncountable nouns:
  • I've got some money.
  • Have you got any rice?
We can use a little and much with uncountable nouns:
  • I've got a little money.
  • I haven't got much rice.
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Uncountable nouns are also called "mass nouns".



Nouns that can be Countable and Uncountable

Sometimes, the same noun can be countable and uncountable, often with a change of meaning.
There are two hairs in my coffee!hairI don't have much hair.
There are two lights in our bedroom.lightClose the curtain. There's too much light!
Shhhhh! I thought I heard a noise.noiseIt's difficult to work when there is too much noise.
Have you got a paper to read? (= newspaper)paperI want to draw a picture. Have you got some paper?
Our house has seven rooms.roomIs there room for me to sit here?
We had a great time at the party.timeHave you got time for a coffee?
Macbeth is one of Shakespeare's greatest works.workI have no money. I need work!
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Drinks (coffee, water, orange juice) are usually uncountable. But if we are thinking of a cup or a glass, we can say (in a restaurant, for example):
  • Two teas and one coffee please.

Tuesday, November 10, 2009

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Some grammar books categorize English into 9 or 10 parts of speech. At English Club, we use the traditional categorization of 8 parts of speech (see Table for more details)
There are thousands of words in any language. But not all words have the same job. For example, some words express "action". Other words express a "thing". Other words "join" one word to another word. These are the "building blocks" of the language. Think of them like the parts of a house. When we want to build a house, we use concrete to make the foundations or base. We use bricks to make the walls. We use window frames to make the windows, and door frames to make the doorways. And we use cement to join them all together. Each part of the house has its own job. And when we want to build a sentence, we use the different types of word. Each type of word has its own job.

We can categorize English words into 8 basic types or classes. These classes are called "parts of speech".
It's quite important to recognize parts of speech. This helps you to analyze sentences and understand them. It also helps you to construct good sentences.
In this lesson, we have an overview of the eight parts of speech, followed by a quiz to check your understanding:

Parts of Speech Table

This is a summary of the 8 parts of speech*. You can find more detail if you click on each part of speech.
part of speechfunction or "job"example wordsexample sentences
Verbaction or state(to) be, have, do, like, work, sing, can, mustEnglishClub.com is a web site. I like EnglishClub.com.
Nounthing or personpen, dog, work, music, town, London, teacher, JohnThis is my dog. He lives in my house. We live in London.
Adjectivedescribes a nouna/an, the, 69, some, good, big, red, well, interestingMy dog is big. I like big dogs.
Adverbdescribes a verb, adjective or adverbquickly, silently, well, badly, very, reallyMy dog eats quickly. When he is very hungry, he eats really quickly.
Pronounreplaces a nounI, you, he, she, someTara is Indian. She is beautiful.
Prepositionlinks a noun to another wordto, at, after, on, butWe went to school on Monday.
Conjunctionjoins clauses or sentences or wordsand, but, whenI like dogs and I like cats. I like cats and dogs. I like dogs but I don't like cats.
Interjectionshort exclamation, sometimes inserted into a sentenceoh!, ouch!, hi!, wellOuch! That hurts! Hi! How are you? Well, I don't know.
* Some grammar sources categorize English into 9 or 10 parts of speech. At EnglishClub.com, we use the traditional categorization of 8 parts of speech. Examples of other categorizations are:
  • Verbs may be treated as two different parts of speech:
    • Lexical Verbs (work, like, run)
    • Auxiliary Verbs (be, have, must)
  • Determiners may be treated as a separate part of speech, instead of being categorized under Adjectives


Parts of Speech Examples

Here are some sentences made with different English parts of speech:
Here is a sentence that contains every part of speech:

Words with More than One Job

Many words in English can have more than one job, or be more than one part of speech. For example, "work" can be a verb and a noun; "but" can be a conjunction and a preposition; "well" can be an adjective, an adverb and an interjection. In addition, many nouns can act as adjectives.
To analyze the part of speech, ask yourself: "What job is this word doing in this sentence?"
In the table below you can see a few examples. Of course, there are more, even for some of the words in the table. In fact, if you look in a good dictionary you will see that the word but has six jobs to do:
  • verb, noun, adverb, pronoun, preposition and conjuction!
wordpart of speechexample
worknounMy work is easy.
verbI work in London.
butconjunctionJohn came but Mary didn't come.
prepositionEveryone came but Mary.
welladjectiveAre you well?
adverbShe speaks well.
interjectionWell! That's expensive!
afternoonnounWe ate in the afternoon.
noun acting as adjectiveWe had afternoon tea.

Now check your understanding »

Hi! That's an interjection. :-)

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Interjections like er and um are also known as "hesitation devices". They are extremely common in English. People use them when they don't know what to say, or to indicate that they are thinking about what to say. You should learn to recognize them when you hear them and realize that they have no real meaning.

Interjection is a big name for a little word. Interjections are short exclamations like Oh!, Um or Ah! They have no real grammatical value but we use them quite often, usually more in speaking than in writing. When interjections are inserted into a sentence, they have no grammatical connection to the sentence. An interjection is sometimes followed by an exclamation mark (!) when written.
The table below shows some interjections with examples.

expressing pleasure
"Ah, that feels good."
expressing realization
"Ah, now I understand."
expressing resignation
"Ah well, it can't be heped."
expressing surprise
"Ah! I've won!"
expressing grief or pity
"Alas, she's dead now."
expressing pity
"Oh dear! Does it hurt?"
expressing surprise
"Dear me! That's a surprise!"
asking for repetition
"It's hot today." "Eh?" "I said it's hot today."
expressing enquiry
"What do you think of that, eh?"
expressing surprise
"Eh! Really?"
inviting agreement
"Let's go, eh?"
expressing hesitation
"Lima is the capital of...er...Peru."
hello, hullo
expressing greeting
"Hello John. How are you today?"
expressing surprise
"Hello! My car's gone!"
calling attention
"Hey! look at that!"
expressing surprise, joy etc
"Hey! What a good idea!"
expressing greeting
"Hi! What's new?"
expressing hesitation, doubt or disagreement
"Hmm. I'm not so sure."
oh, o
expressing surprise
"Oh! You're here!"
expressing pain
"Oh! I've got a toothache."
expressing pleading
"Oh, please say 'yes'!"
expressing pain
"Ouch! That hurts!"
expressing hesitation
"Uh...I don't know the answer to that."
expressing agreement
"Shall we go?" "Uh-huh."
um, umm
expressing hesitation
"85 divided by 5 is...um...17."
expressing surprise
"Well I never!"
 introducing a remark
"Well, what did he say?"

Friday, November 6, 2009

Always remember that English is not "phonetic". That means that we do not always say a word the same way that we spell it.
Some words can have the same spelling but different pronunciation, for example:
  • Audio I like to read [ri:d].
  • Audio I have read [red] that book.
Some words have different spelling but the same pronunciation, for example:
  • Audio I have read [red] that book.
  • Audio My favourite colour is red [red].
Learn the 52 Sounds of English
The English language may have 26 letters of the alphabet, but it has double that number of sounds: 52. Knowing and recognizing the 52 sounds will help to give you good pronunciation. Of course, everybody knows that good pronunciation helps our speaking. But do you know that good pronunciation also helps our listening? To learn and practise the 52 Sounds of English, check out Pronunciation Power, a pronunciation training program on CD-rom recommended by EnglishClub.com.

Wednesday, November 4, 2009

A tongue-twister is a sequence of words that is difficult to pronounce quickly and correctly. Even native English speakers find the tongue-twisters on this page difficult to say quickly. Try them yourself. Try to say them as fast as possible, but correctly!
A proper copper coffee pot.

Around the rugged rocks the ragged rascals ran.

Long legged ladies last longer.

Mixed biscuits, mixed biscuits.

A box of biscuits, a box of mixed biscuits and a biscuit mixer!

Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled pepper.
Did Peter Piper pick a peck of pickled pepper?
If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled pepper,
Where's the peck of pickled pepper Peter Piper picked?

Pink lorry, yellow lorry.

Red leather, yellow leather, red leather, yellow leather.

She sells sea-shells on the sea-shore.

The sixth sick Sheik's sixth sheep is sick.
[Sometimes described as the hardest tongue-twister in the English language.]

Swan swam over the pond,
Swim swan swim!
Swan swam back again -
Well swum swan!

Three grey geese in green fields grazing.

We surely shall see the sun shine soon.


  1. Set a goal
    So, you've decided to take the TOEIC test. Congratulations! The first thing you should do is set a goal. If you are taking the test in order to apply for a job, find out what proficiency level is required. Most entry level positions require a minimum score of 600. Management positions may require a higher score, such as 800.

    Choose a goal that is achievable. If you aim too high, you will be disappointed. Remember, you can take the test as often as you want if you don't mind paying the fee.

  2. Understand the test

    Before you start studying for the test, make sure you understand the format of each section. You will be tested on your listening and reading comprehension skills. By doing model or practice tests, you will become very familiar with the TOEIC. The test should become "second nature" to you before you attempt the real thing.

  3. Make a study plan

    Procrastination is one of the key reasons students fail the TOEIC test. You may book your TOEIC test months in advance. However, the day you decide to take the TOEIC test should be the day you start to study.

    You will have to decide whether or not you are going to teach yourself the TOEIC with reliable resources or whether you are going to take a TOEIC preparation class. In order to get the best results, you should do both. If you cannot afford to take a TOEIC class, make sure to choose a TOEIC textbook that has explanatory answers. You will also want to have a teacher or tutor that you can go to from time to time with questions.

    If you choose a TOEIC class, make sure that you trust your teacher and feel comfortable in his or her class. Take a class with a friend and make a commitment to study together in and outside of class.

    Studying at the same time every day is a great way to improve your score. Write down your study plan and sign it!

  4. Divide study time appropriately

    The TOEIC is divided into seven sections. Each section is worth a certain amount of points. Don't spend too much time studying one section. Many students make the mistake of studying the section that they enjoy the most. This is the section you should spend the least amount of time on.

    You might want to divide your study week by focusing on a certain section each day. Remember, if Sunday is your day to practice Part VII (40 questions on the test), you might have to study twice as long as you would on Monday when you focus on Part I (20 questions on the test).

  5. Build a strong vocabulary

    Another reason students fail the TOEIC test is that they have a very limited vocabulary. The day you decide to take the TOEIC test you should make yourself a blank dictionary. Use a notebook (an address book works great because it is divided into letters) and keep track of all of the new words you learn along the way. It is not useful to study vocabulary lists. You will only remember words that you have seen in context. For each entry, write the word and use it in a sentence. At the end of each week you should write a short letter or composition using as many of the words as you can.

    This might also be the time to stop using your translation dictionary. Electric dictionaries make things too simple! You will not remember the word if it doesn't take any effort to understand it.

    Keep in mind that the TOEIC test has a business theme. You should study vocabulary from topics such as travel, banking, health, restaurants, offices, etc. You will also want to learn everyday idiomatic expressions.

  6. Isolate your weak points

    After you have been studying the TOEIC for a while, you will find out which parts give you the most trouble. You might want to change how you divide your time. There are certain grammar points that many students have trouble with. If you are taking a TOEIC class, ask your teacher to bring in extra homework help on problems like these. If you are studying by yourself, find a good reference book in the library and look up your question. There may also be help on the Internet. For example, type "gerunds" into a search engine and you will probably find a useful exercise.

  7. Eliminate distractors

    In every TOEIC question, there are at least two distractors (wrong answers that the test writer uses to trick you). It is much easier to choose the correct answer when you have only two to choose from. (The third choice is often impossible and easy to spot.) There are many types of distractors such as, similar sounds, homonyms, repeated words, etc. As you study, make yourself a list of distractors. When you come across them you will be able to eliminate them more easily.

  8. Trust your instincts

    Sometimes an answer will jump out at you as either correct or incorrect. If you have been studying hard, chances are that your brain is telling you which choice to pick. Don't change your answers after following your instinct. If you do decide to change an answer, make sure that you erase very carefully. A machine will be marking your test. Be sure to use a pencil and fill in your circle choice completely. Bring extra pencils, erasers, and a pencil sharpener!

  9. Don't try to translate

    Translating vocabulary and sentences wastes a lot of time. It is very rare that students have extra time during the TOEIC test. If you don't know a word, look at the context of the sentence and the words around it. You will not be allowed to use a dictionary when you take the test.

  10. Guess as a last resort

    On test day, if you don't know the answer, and you have eliminated all of the distractors you can, don't leave the space blank. There is a good chance you will not have time to go back to this question. You still have a 25% chance of getting the answer right if you guess. If you are sure that one or two of the answers are incorrect, your guess is even more likely to be correct!

  11. Be aware of time management

    When you are doing practice tests, you should always be aware of the time. Never allow yourself an open ended study session. You will have to learn to work efficiently.

    On test day, you should be especially careful in the Reading section. You will have 75 minutes to complete Parts V, VI and VII. Many students spend too long on section V or VI because they find these the most difficult. Don't spend more than 30 minutes on the first two parts. Part VII will take you at least 40 minutes, and it is worth a lot of points, especially if you find it an easier section.

  12. Listen quickly

    When you are studying for the TOEIC test, do not get in the habit of rewinding the tape. On test day you won't have any control over the speed of the listening section. You will not even have time to think for very long between questions. Make sure that you do not get behind during the real test. If you do not know the answer, take your best guess. Then continue to follow along. Don't look back at questions when you are waiting for another question to start.

  13. Practise reading aloud

    Reading out loud will help your listening and reading comprehension skills. In order to comprehend English more quickly, it is important that you understand the rhythm of the language. Read from textbooks, pamphlets, newspapers, and even children's novels. You might want to tape yourself and listen to how you sound.

  14. Use mass media

    One of the best ways to prepare for the TOEIC test is to study real English. Watch television, listen to radio reports, and read newspapers and magazines. Pay special attention to ads, letters, weather and traffic reports, coupons, and special announcements. Do this with a friend, and write out questions for each other to answer. This is a great way to practice your wh-questions. It is also a great way to learn common idiomatic expressions.

  15. Use free web sites

    There are many web sites that offer free model tests and samples. Type TOEIC into your search engine and start practising! Surfing the web is a great way to practise your reading and listening. If you are interested in a certain topic, such as snowboarding, type that into a search engine. You might want to reserve an hour a day for Internet studying. Just make sure to study English and don't get caught wasting hours playing games!

  16. Teach a native English speaker your language

    If you can't afford a tutor, you might know a native English speaker who would be interested in learning your first language. Tell him you will teach him for free for one hour a week! You will have to use English to teach him, and you will learn many new English words and expressions at each session. Forcing yourself to teach someone a language will help you to understand English grammatical rules as well. Do anything you can to speak with native English speakers.

  17. Keep an English journal

    Keeping a journal doesn't have to be an account of your daily activities. You can write anything in a journal, such as how your studying is coming along, what your new favourite word is and why, or which teacher you admire. If you are studying TOEIC with a friend, make a list of writing topics for each other. You might decide to write a paragraph three times a week. Get your friend to try to find your mistakes. Finding your partner's writing errors is great practice for Part V and VI.

  18. Ask questions

    Never hesitate to ask lots of questions. In a TOEIC class, all of the students will benefit from your question. If you don't understand something, such as conditionals, you may lose ten points on a TOEIC exam. A teacher is not always available, but students are everywhere! Sometimes other students can help you with a grammar problem even better than a teacher.

  19. Manage your stress

    If you are feeling stressed about taking the TOEIC you may be studying too hard or expecting too much of yourself. Like everything else in life, balance is the key. Remind yourself that you will try to do your best. Before the test, take deep breaths and remember that you can always improve your score in a few months time. In between the listening and reading section, take a few deep breaths again to get focused.

  20. Don't cram

    You should never cram (study extremely hard in a short period of time) the night or even week before the TOEIC test. There is so much to learn when you study the TOEIC. The last week should be for reviewing and practising rather than learning new things. Make sure to get plenty of sleep the night before the test. On the day of the test, have a good meal and relax for a few hours before going to the testing centre. Plan to reward yourself when the test is over!

TOEIC Practice Session
Examples for each section of the TOEIC, and explanations concerning the right and wrong answers.

TOEIC: Test of English for International Communication

It's a pity that English is not phonetic! In some languages,
you can look at a word and know immediately how to pronounce
it. But in English you need to be a little more careful.

Take the letters "ough", for example. They occur in many
words, but they do not always sound the same.

1. though (like o in go)

2. through (like oo in too)

3. cough (like off in offer)

4. rough (like uff in suffer)

5. plough (like ow in flower)

6. ought (like aw in saw)

7. borough (like a in above)

So how do you know the pronunciation of a word? Well,
fortunately "ough" is an extreme example. English words are
not always that difficult. But in general, when you learn a
new word, you should also make sure you know its
pronunciation. If you do not have a teacher or someone to
say the word for you, you can look in a dictionary. All good
dictionaries give the pronunciation for each word, often
with special symbols. So it's a good idea to look at your
dictionary carefully and learn the pronunciation symbols.
After that, you'll always be able to find the pronunciation
of any word, easily. Try it with the 7 "ough" words above.

You'll find more about pronunciation at:

Museum of Natural History Chicago

The Ghost and The Darkness, two Tsavo lions are known for eating at least 35 people.

WASHINGTON, KOMPAS.com - ambushes in the night by two man-eater lions have plagued the railway workers over a hundred years ago. The real story was later appointed to the big screen in a movie called "The Ghost and The Darkness" is a story of a horrible massacre in Africa. But according to recent research, the number of those who died for the lion's prey is not as much as originally expected.

For more than nine months, two fierce lions, known as The Ghost and The Darkness were the lives of workers pulling 35 - not a small amount, but far less than the original calculation of victims who called 135.

Event itself occurred in 1898 when the British government mobilize the workers from India and the local population to build the train line from Uganda through Kenya. We crossed the area named Tsavo, workers are haunted by the lions without a human hair hooked. Not like a male lion with long hair, male Tsavo lions are not so much like a lion-haired female. One by one worker was killed and used as food.

The number of dead is reported as 28 laborers plus many local people involved in the project, which totaled 135 people. But researchers who want to know how many victims Tsavo lion's body was later learned that the lions are now on display at the Museum of Natural History in Chicago. They examine the types of carbon and nitrogen in both teeth and hair.

Chemical ratios were then compared with the carbon and nitrogen in the modern lion in the same area, also the lion and the lion prey animals that devour humans.

Bones and teeth can store carbon and nitrogen isotopes in a long time while the ratio in the hair will change more quickly, allowing the researchers determine the types of food lion in a long time, and changes during the last months.

It turned out that one of the lions made of human flesh known as half of the food is during the last months he lived, and thought he had eaten at least 24 people. Whereas the other lions had eaten 11 people.

Researchers led by anthropologist Nathaniel J. Dominy and Justin D. Yeakel of the University of California, Santa Cruz noted that the number of deaths reported at that time ranged from 28 people like Uganda Railway Company reported, up to 135 people as expressed Lt. Col. John H Patterson, the British officer who killed both the lion in December 1898.

In a report published Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences on Tuesday (3 / 11) it is mentioned that the number 35 is mentioned is the number of people who eat, not including those just killed. Because according to the story, the lion also like to kill not to be eaten. When the murdered counted, the number could reach 75 people.

The two lions were killing people during the drought that causes their prey disappear. At the same time, railroad workers coming to their location, so as to replace their prey. It is a bit odd according to the researchers, is that the lion seemed to work together to kill the person they seek. This is a normal thing when they hunt large prey such as buffalo or zebra, but not necessary if they are human or animal hunted smaller.

Even so, one of the lions were known to have dental problems and pain in the jaw, thus reducing its ability to hunt. So that both can work together, in which a single feed more people, while others prefer other prey, but also human hooked.

kapan ni album release y?
hmmm,. menurut kabar tu y ni album genrenya lebih ke alternatif dan soft rock, coz bang M. Shadow dah kga bisa scream lg,. ckck, bkal kyk dear god gtu kali y,. tapi genre tetep metalcore or sebut aj genre crossover,.

Lagu yang agak dibocorkan adalah Unwind The Chainsaw, tapi pihak Warner Bros katany masih merahasiakany????
trus tu y yg byk beredar d youtube tu palsu abisss!!! hha
walopun katany- suara2ny agak mirip am M. Shadow, n' suara gitarny synister,.

M. Shadow dalam fansite nya mengatakan tidak ingin mengecewakan para fans mereka. N' berikut adalah kutipan dari yang dikatakan M. Shadow.

Hello everyone -
I realize that with the last record we stayed away from personally updating you guys with loads of information about how we were doing and about how the tours were going. We stayed away from doing too many interviews, radio and T.V. spots, trying not to overexpose ourselves. Not seeing ourselves everywhere and hearing about stupid shit we’ve said has generally made us happier people, much unlike the “City of Evil” record cycle. But I feel in doing so we have stopped communicating with the people that truly care about this band, the fans. So I’m gonna try to make these updates a little more frequently.
First I wanna say we had a great time touring this record. From the first tour in clubs, to headlining “Taste of Chaos”, to going out with Iron Maiden in Europe, to finishing it up with Buckcherry, Papa Roach, Burn Halo, Shinedown, Saving Abel and Rev Theory. We’ve made some great new friends and just had a great time playing to you guys every night. Rock on the Range and opening for Metallica in Mexico City were just added bonuses. We are gonna start rehearsing here in a couple days to get ready for Sonisphere over in the U.K and Ireland. We are looking forward to that.
We have been relaxing after almost 20 months of straight touring, but we have also been throwing around a lot of ideas for the new album. I think after we get back from the U.K. we will be able to fully get into this writing process. I’d hate to say more and start speculation and rumors this early in the process so thats all I’ll say about the album. Time flies and you’ll have a new record on your ipod before you know it, so be patient.
Since we’ve been home I’ve been working on a song with Slash for his solo album. It’s a killer track and he plays some of the most technical stuff I’ve ever heard from him.
But since it’s his record and not mine, more updates will have to come from him. “Waking the Fallen” went gold today and though we don’t talk about record sales much, this feels like a huge accomplishment. That record sold 3,000 copies the first week and is now well over 500,000 copies. In a day when music is virtually free, its a huge testament to the fans we have and the dedication they have given us for 10 years. Thanks guys and girls, we look forward to 10 more!

Daripada gatel2 bingung nyari albumny, dtunggu aj, orang emang blm keluar,. hha
mga aj ni album lbi bagus drpd album taon kmaren,. amin,.,

Tuesday, November 3, 2009